This statue has been extensively repaired in the 18th century but also in ancient times, it’s head is ancient but orginally belonged to another statue. It is, as many roman statues, a copy of a greek statue. The god dionysos is the god of wine and divine intoxication.
Early roman empire, 27 BC - 68 AD, emperor Augustan or Julio-Claudian
There is no mention of the equestrian statue dedicated to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius in ancient literary sources, but it was in all likelihood erected in 176 AD, along with numerous other honors on the occasion of his triumph over the Germanic tribes, or in 180 AD soon after his death. There were many equestrian statues in Rome at that time: late-Imperial descriptions of the areas of the city listed 22 such statues, called equi magni, that is larger-than-life-size, just like the monument to Marcus Aurelius. The latter statue, however, is the only one to have survived to the present, and by virtue of its integrity it soon assumed the symbolic value for all those who wished to present themselver as heirs to Imperial Rome. Its location in the Lateran is first recorded in the tenth century, but it is likely that it had been there from at least the end of the eighth century, when Charlemagne wanted to copy the layout of Campus Lateranensis when he transferred a similar equestrian statue, taken from Ravenna, to his palace in Aachen. In 1538 Pope Paul II ordered the Farnese family to have the statue moved to the Capitoline Hill, which had become the head quarters of the city’s authorities in 1143. A year after its arrival, the Roman Senate commissioned Michelangelo to refurbish the statue. The great Florentine artist did not just limit himself to planning an appropriate site for the monument, but made in central element in the magnificent architecutral complex known as the Piazza of the Capitoline Hill.
Found beneath the floor of a temple at Khafaje, northeast of Baghdad, this imposing statuette of a bearded man stands in a posture of austere piety. His carefully patterned beard and fringed skirt identify him as either a high priest or a god. Typical of such votive statues, the figure is highly stylized with little reflection of musculature or naturalistic proportions, its head expressing devotion and power through the exaggeration of facial features. Enlarged, staring eyes made of shell inlaid in bitumen project a concentrated intensity, which is accentuated by crescent-shaped brows. Squared arms and tightly clasped hands add to the figure’s strength.
This sensitively rendered goat with bound feet realistically evokes the widespread practice of animal sacrifice in ancient Greece. This statue, however, was probably a votive offering, perhaps to a deity with a rustic nature, such as Pan, Artemis, or Dionysos.
Votive heads were placed in temples to accompany requests and offerings of thanks to the gods. Stamps and molds were used to produce images of both men and women. On finer examples, such as this head, elements of the face and hair were refined with a pointed tool before firing in the kiln. Traces of paint suggest that the hair was originally painted bright red. The holes in the ears once held earrings. The large, lively eyes and patterned hair are hallmarks of Etruscan figural representation.