Duamutef is one of the four sons of Horus who were entrusted with protecting the organs of a mummy. On this jar the paint is still visible and a lively jackal face can be seen. It is 31cm high and 13.5cm in diameter ( 12 3/16 x 5 5/16 inch.)
The goddess is shown sitting on her legs, spreading her wings. She is wearing a crown of horns that enclose the sun. This represents her as the sky goddess. 11.5 x 23.6 in centimeters ( 4 1/2 x 9 5/16 inch.)
Portrait is made on sycomore wood. Material used is tempera. The man is flanked by Egyptian gods; on the right the god Horus and on the left the goddess Hathor. 38 cm high and 22.4cm wide ( 14 15/16 x 8 13/16 inch.)
Egyptian, made in the Roman Period, around 250 AD.
Henhenet was one of six royal females who were buried in shaft tombs beneath the platform of King Mentuhotep II’s temple at Deir el Bahri. Her massive sarcophagus is made of several limestone slabs set on a sandstone base. The lid, which belonged originally to one of the other royal ladies, Kawit, consists of three parts. Each of these is pierced by two holes through which suspension ropes were slotted for lowering the piece into place. The inscriptions around the sarcophagus box were first painted green, then outlined in black on two sides; the third side was started but left unfinished. When found, there was still a wooden coffin inside the sarcophagus; within this was Henhenet’s robbed mummy. According to Edouard Naville, the excavator, she was “lying on the cloth wrappings. Her hands and feet are small and delicately formed, her hair short and straight.” The mummy was sent to Cairo in 1923. It was studied there by Dr. Douglas Derry, who concluded that Henhenet had been about 21 years old when she died in childbirth. Above each of the shafts in which the royal females were buried were small shrines built to house statues of the deceased.
In the Egyptian funerary tradition this type of gilded mask acted as a substitute for the head of the deceased, and bestowed attributes of various deities, helping them to reach the Afterlife. These masks date from the beginning of the Roman occupation of Egypt from around 30 BC. Some of the masks, like this one, are inscribed with the name of the owner, with additional personal details.
The mask has some sense of an actual portrait. It shows a woman with a sad or stern face, holding a wreath of pink flowers across her chest. She wears a tunic with a vertical purple band, now black, which drapes realistically across her chest. Her black hair is arranged in three tiers of curls, with ringlets dropping to her shoulders. Details of her eyebrows, eyes and lashes are picked out in black and white. The inscription naming her is placed behind the gilded edge of the veil on her head and shoulders. Her jewellery, typical of this type of mask, consists of a pendant on a chain around her neck, decorated with three deities, ball earrings, elaborate snake bracelets and an armlet.
Painted wooden cippus showing Horus standing on crocodiles
Possibly from Memphis, Egypt Late Period, after 600 BC
A cure for bites and stings
A cippus was a type of stela that healed and protected against snake bites and scorpion stings. It was thought that water poured over the cippus gained healing properties. This example is surmounted by the head of the household god Bes, who protected the family from malign forces. Cippi typically show the infant Horus standing on crocodiles and holding dangerous animals such as snakes, scorpions and lions in his hands.
According to myth, the infant Harpokrates (Horus the child) was bitten or stung while in hiding with his mother in the marshes of the Delta. The lament of Isis stopped the celestial boat of the sun-god, who was supposed to be protecting the child. Re sent down his messenger Thoth, who cured the child by reciting a long list of spells. He promised that all that he had done for Harpokrates would be done for any human.
The spells first spoken by Thoth were inscribed on stelae to prevent and cure stings and bites, as well as many other complaints. All manner of conditions of unknown origin, such as convulsions, were attributed to poisoning of the blood. These were regarded as an intrusion of the forces of chaos into the ordered world; the spells were an attempt to combat the unknown.